Ifugao is located at the foot of the Cordillera Mountain Ranges.
It is bounded on the west by Benguet, on the south by Nueva Vizcaya,
on the east by Isabela and on the north by Mt. Province. It is generally
located at 120 degrees 40’17” longitude.
Ifugao is politically divided into 11 municipalities and 175 barangays
with the municipality of Lagawe as its capital. The 11 municipalities
with some basic information are as follows:
Land Area (sq.
No. of Barangays
* 2007 NSO Census of Population
** DOF, As of 2008
Ifugao was formerly a part of the old Mountain
Province. It was created as an independent province on June 18,
1966 by virtue of Republic Act No. 4695, otherwise known as the
“Division Law of Mountain Province.” Under this law, Mountain Province
was divided into four (4) provinces namely: Ifugao, Kalinga-Apayao,
Benguet and Mountain Province.
Ifugao has a land area total of 2,517.78 sq. km. spread
over its 11 municipalities. The biggest municipality in terms of
land area is Aguinaldo with 454.51 sq. km. or 18.05% of the total
provincial land area while the smallest is Hingyon with 114.56 sq.
km. or 4.55%.
The land use pattern in Ifugao consists mostly of
grassland and shrubland. Agricultural land is mostly found on narrow
river valleys, plateaus and mountain side swidden (kaingin). Most
cultivated areas are terraced riceland on mountain slopes and river
valleys. Of the aggregate land area, only 7.7% or 193.91 sq. km.
are cultivated for agriculture while grassland and shrubland occupy
about 1,607.44 sq. km. or 63.84% of the total land area. The rest
of the area are pastureland - 22.45 sq. km., woodland - 658.62 sq.
km. and miscellaneous uses, 35.36 sq. km.
Ifugao's topography is geophysically mountainous and
characterized by complex geological features. It is notably surrounded
by mountains, low-lying hills and a very small alluvial land found
along the Magat River, and rolling hills in the municipality of
Lista. Terrain characteristics are usually rough and rugged with
v-shaped gullies, creeks, streams and u-shaped rivers.
The soil types of Ifugao are clay loam, silt loam
and sandy loam of different varieties. In most cases, the crops
planted on clay loam are paddy rice (terraces), coffee, vegetables,
root crops and citrus.
The province is blessed with a temperate climate.
It has a short dry season lasting for three months which starts
from the early part of January and lasts through late April. The
wet season starts from May and ends by late December. The hottest
months are March and April while the coolest months are from November
to February. Banaue, Tinoc, Hungduan and the southern part of Kiangan
are the coolest places in the province. During summer, Ifugao's
temperature is moderate. This is attributed to its geographical
location and its forested areas that tend to regulate the extreme
heat of the summer sun. The extreme temperature coming from the
southwest direction radiates towards the forest and in return cool
mountain breezes profusely blow towards the locality producing a
As to natural resources, the province's total forest
area is 2,263.69 sq. km. The forest cover consists of a variety
of softwoods and hardwoods. Pine, acacia, narra, red lauan, guijo,
tanguile and alnos are some of the species which abound in the province.
Pine exists in Tinoc and Banaue municipalities. Acacia abounds in
Lagawe, Lamut and Kiangan areas.
Ifugao has eleven major rivers. The waters of the
Ibulao and Alimit Rivers flow ceaselessly to the Magat River providing
water to the Magat River Integrated Irrigation System Dam and at
the same time irrigating the vast rice lands of the provinces of
Isabela and Quirino. Fish and other aquatic animals are available
in these bodies of waters which are also vital sources of sand and
gravel. Aside from these many rivers, the province is endowed with
springs that are tapped as potable water supply for the growing
Attractions and Events
The province has 45 existing and potential tourist attractions
which are classified into four categories: man-made, historical,
cultural and natural spots. The man-made attractions include the
Rice Terraces of Banaue, Batad, Bangaan, Hapao, Kinga, Bacung, Nunggulunan,
Mayoyao, Nagacadan and Julongan, Gohang Mummified Couple and the
Magat Dam. The historical attractions which are all located in the
municipality of Kiangan are: the Kiangan War Memorial Shrine, Ifugao
Museum, the Surrender Site of General Tomoyuki Yamashita, the Million-Dollar
Hill and the Apfo'or Burial Tombs. The natural attractions include
the Nah-toban and Bintacan Caves, Guihob Natural Pool, Tappiyah
Waterfalls, Ambuaya Lake, Chapah Waterfalls, Buyuccan Waterfalls,
Tenogtog Waterfalls, O'phaw Mahencha Waterfalls, Tukukan Sulfur
Hot Spring, Bogya Hot Spring and Ducligan Hot Spring. The cultural
attractions include the villages of Tam-an, Bocos, Bokiawan, Pula,
Cambulo, Matanglag and Nuntamangan. Added attractions for domestic
as well a foreign tourists are the cultural festivals namely: Gotad
ad Kiangan, Gotad ad Hingyon, Tungoh ad Hungduan, Imbayah ad Banaue,
Kulpi ad Lagawe, Tighaw ad Mayoyao, Bakle ad Nagacadan and Boklay
ad Asipulo. For mountain climbing and/or trekking, the province
can boast of several mountains to venture to and conquer, like Mt.
Amuyao, Mt. Napulawan, Mt. Anapawon and Mt. Nagchayan, to name a
Gotad ad Kiangan
Gotad is one phase in the performance of the three prestige rites
of the Ifugaos, namely: Balihong, Uya-uy and Hagabi. Traditionally,
it involves a lot of merrymaking like drinking, singing, chanting
and dancing. It has a festive atmosphere and a lot of rice wine
is served to the visitors and folks. To date, Kiangan celebrates
its Gotad every 1st day of May every year. It is a special feature
of their town fiesta with its gottadan (ethnic parade); chanting
of the Liwliwa, Hudhud and Alim; ricewine drinking and folk singing.
Traditionally, this is an enhancing cultural victory feast of the
Mayoyao Tribe of Ifugao. Its celebration today commemorates ancient
rituals and features ethnic games. It is usually celebrated during
the third week of March.
Tungoh ad Hungduan
In the days of old, Tungoh is observed as rest days of the farmers
after the planting season. Now, the municipality celebrates it with
an ethnic festival featuring authentic Ifugao ethnic wears, ethnic
games and a cultural night of songs and dances. It is celebrated
within the third week of April each year.
Gotad ad Hingyon
As the ancient Ifugaos did it, Gotad is one special day in 12 feast
celebrated by the royal class in the performance of the prestige
rites. Modern Ifugaos of Hingyon celebrate Gotad in April with cultural
parades, songs and dances, ethno-modern sports and booth competitions
where the best of Ifugao crafts are displayed.
This is actually a prestige rite performed by the elites of Banaue.
Today, it is a three-day festival highlighting the native games
and sports, arts and craft of the Ifugao.
Kulpi ad Lagawe
This is traditionally performed after the rice planting season
to drive away the pest and evil spirits for a bountiful harvest.
The farmers perform this ritual in their respective homes one after
the other or sometimes simultaneously.
Bakle ad Nagacadan
This is celebrated in Kiangan after the harvest season to express
heartfelt gratitude for a bountiful harvest. Abundant binakle (ricecake)
and baya (ricewine) are found in every household for anybody to
partake of. It is usually celebrated during the month of September